I would like to thank here all the people who helped me to obtain information on ill-known, or ancient events, at the scale of space era.

Peter Alway, Saturn Press, USA
Kerrie Dougherty, PHM, Australia
Patrick Epinoux, DGA, France
Sven Grahn, SSC, Sweden
Georgina Hooper, Science Museum, UK
Torben Stockflet Jørgensen, DMI, Denmark
Philippe Jung, Alcatel, France
Paul Kuentzmann, ONERA, France
Jonathan McDowell, Harvard, USA
Doug Millard, Science Museum, UK
Benito A. de la Morena, INTA, Spain
John Pitfield, UK
Claudio Portelli, ASI, Italy
Christophe Rothmund, SNECMA, France
Julian Simon, INTA, Spain
Per Torbo, NSC, Norway
Philippe Varnoteaux, France
Jacques Villain, SNECMA, France
James Wentworth, USA

those who sent me pictures of ill-known rockets: Silvio Barbero, Giuseppe De Chiara, Jean-Yves Hanrion and Gunter Krebs

and also Florence Garonnat, for the help in writing the English version.


  • General works (since 1980)
    "Les origines et les enjeux de la conquête de l'espace en France (1944-1962)", Philippe Varnoteaux, Thesis, Reims (2000)
    "Fire across the desert", Peter Morton, AGPS Press (1997)
    "Spaceflight and Rocketry : A chronology", David Baker, Facts on File, Inc (1996)
    "Rockets of the World", Peter Alway, Saturn Press (1995)
    "Making Sense of Space - The History of Norwegian Space Activities", John Peter Collett, Scandinavian University Press (1995)
    "Les trente premières années du CNES", Claude Carlier & Marcel Gili, La Documentation Française / CNES (1994)
    "Europe in Space: 1960-1973", John Krige & Arturo Russo, ESA SP-1172 (1994)
    "Guide des lanceurs spatiaux", Serguei Grichkov, Tessier & Ashpool (1992)
    "L'Italia nello spazio", Giovanni Caprara, Velerio Levi Ed. (1992)
    "L'aventure spatiale européenne", P. Cart-Tanneur, Ed. Trame Way (1990)
    "Rockets into Space", Frank H. Winter, Harvard University Press (1990)
    "Le grand atlas de l'espace", collectif, Encyclopaedia Universalis (1987)

  • "La force de dissuasion française", Jacques Villain, Editions Larivière (1987)
    "Ariane", Alain Souchier et Patrick Baudry, L'Odyssée - Flammarion (1986)
    "History of British Space Science", Sir Harrie Massey, M.O. Robins, Cambridge University Press (1986)
    "L'industrie aéronautique et spatiale française 1907-1982", collective work, GIFAS (1984)
    "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Space Technology", collective work directed by Kenneth Gatland, Salamander Books Ltd (1981)

  • Congress articles
    "Alpha, Beta and RTV-1: The Development of Early British Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines", J. Harlow, 27th History Symposium of the IAA (1993)
    "The History of the Viking Engine", C. Rothmund, 27th History Symposium of the IAA (1993)
    "Agate and its forebears", P. Jung, 26th History Symposium of the IAA (1992)
    "Coralie, the forgotten rocket", C. Rothmund, 25th History Symposium of the IAA (1991)
    "History of the French sounding rocket programme", C. Rothmund, BIS Symposium on Sounding Rockets (1991)
    "A History of the Early Solid Propellant Motors of Royal Ordnance plc Rocket Motors Division", J. Harlow, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 28th Joint Propulsion Conference (1992)
    "The evolution of Liquid Rocket Propulsion in France in the Last Fifty Years", J. Villain, 23rd History Symposium of the IAA (1989)
    "British Rockets Experiments in the Late 1950s/Early 1960s", J. Becklake, 23rd History Symposium of the IAA (1989)
    "The British Black Knight Rocket", J. Becklake, 23rd History Symposium of the IAA (1989)
    "On the many guises of the Rook", J. Harlow, 4th British Solid propellant Rocketry Meeting (1989)
    "Beginning of rocket and missile activities in Switzerland", N.A. Schilep, 10th History Symposium of the IAA (1976)
    "Early History of the Skylark rocket", E.B. Dorling, 9th History Symposium of the IAA (1975)
    "Early French Upper Atmosphere Research using Rockets", A. Vassy, 9th History Symposium of the IAA (1975)
    "A History of the French Sounding Rocket Veronique", J. Corbeau, 8th History Symposium of the IAA (1974)
    "French sounding rockets and their possible missions", M. Cade, BIS Symposium on Sounding Rockets and Experimental Results (1971)
    "The ESRO Sounding Rockets Programme 1964-1971", D. Eaton, BIS Symposium on Sounding Rockets and Experimental Results (1971)

  • Periodical works
    Jane's Space Directory (biennial)
    Spaceflight (monthly)
    Aéronautique et Astronautique (monthly)
    Space News (weekly)
    Air & Cosmos / Aviation International (weekly)