Index

Space
Launchers

Suborbital
Vehicles

Rocket
Ranges

Français


From Belier to Eridan


In the late Fifties, the need for sounding rockets easier to use than Veronique was felt. The National Defense Scientific Actions Committee placed, in 1958, an order with Sud Aviation for a batch of solid-propellant sounding rockets whose storage and use were simplified. The Sud Aviation company resulted from the merger in 1957, of Sud-Est Aviation (SNCASE) and Ouest Aviation (SNCASO) companies.

Sud Aviation plant Sud Aviation plant

Belier, Centaure and Dragon

The first versions of this series had a 305 mm fairing diameter. There was a single-stage vehicle, Belier (Ram), capable of sending 30 kg to 85 km of altitude, and two 2-stage vehicles using the Belier as upper stage. Centaure (Centaur) used a small booster, 280 mm in diameter, and climbed to 130 km with a 60 kg payload. Dragon used a 560 mm diameter booster and culminated at 475 km with the same payload. These rockets were spin stabilized thanks to small thrusters placed at end of empennage. Belier and Centaure accomplished their first flight in 1961, Dragon in 1962.

In its first version, Belier was propelled by a solid motor using a 208 kg Jericho grain loaded with Epictete propellant (ISp=190 sec). This motor was derived from the MATRA R422 surface-to-air missile sustainer. Centaure and Dragon boosters used Plastolite propellant (ISp=205 sec). The first burned a 94 kg Venus grain previously used in several Latecoere's missiles. The second featured a spiral-wound steel casing loaded with a 686 kg Stromboli grain. When Sud Aviation sold the manufacture licence of these rockets to foreign countries (India and Pakistan), it developed at this juncture a Belier II loaded with Pastolite. Few years later, appeared for the national needs a Belier III propelled by a Vega grain loaded with Isolane propellant (ISp=240 sec), which increased further the performances. For each Belier version, there was a corresponding Centaure and Dragon version.

CNES (and CNET before 1962) launched, under his responsibility:
- 19 Belier (16 Belier I and 3 Belier III) until 1970. ONERA also launched 1 Belier III in 1969.
- 103 Centaure (100 Centaure I and 3 Centaure IIC from the ex-ESRO on behalf of Belgium) until 1974,
- 45 dragon (28 Dragon I, 10 Dragon IIB and 7 Dragon III) until 1973.

ESRO launched from 3 rocket ranges (Salto di Quirra, Andoya and Kiruna) and a temporary range (Evia Island):
- 2 Belier I in 1966
- 64 Centaure (21 Centaure I, 37 Centaure IIB and 6 Centaure IIC) until 1972. At the end the ESRO sounding rocket program, 6 Centaur IIC remained: 3 of which were launched by Sweden as part of his own program and 3 by CNES on behalf of Belgium.
- 4 Dragon I in 1967-1968.

After a series of 4 firings carried out by CNES from El Arenosillo in 1971, Spain launched 2 Centaure I in 1977.
After two series of firings (4 in 1962 and 2 in 1963) carried out by CNES, Argentina launched 9 Centaure I from Chamical and 2 Dragon I from Mar Chiquita.
In addition to the rockets constructed under license, India launched 10 Centaure I and 1 Dragon I from Thumba. The first Indian-made Centaure II was launched on 26 February 1969.
In the same way, Pakistan launched 8 Centaure I and 2 Dragon I from Sonmiani. The first Pakistan-made Centaure II (Rehnuma 1) was launched on 31 March 1969.

Note : Sud Aviation also studied a three-stage vehicle, named Pegase and composed of two Stromboli and a Jericho. Weighing 2047 kg, it would have been capable of carrying 32 kg to 1000 km of altitude, but was not realized.

Eridan Eridan

Dauphin and Eridan

A second series of solid-rockets was born in second half of the Sixties. Intended to carry larger diameter payloads, they used 560 mm diameter Stromboli motors only.
Thus, Dauphin (Dolphin) was a single-stage rocket whose fairing had to be equipped with a thermal protection against the aerodynamic heating because speed reached. Eridan was a two-stage rocket (2 Stromboli) able to send a 250 kg payload to more than 300 km of altitude.

The career of these rockets was shorter than that their predecessors. Only 6 Dauphin were launched between 1967 and 1979, and 15 Eridan between 1968 and 1979.

Tables
a/ Sud-Aviation rockets evolution
b/ Launches under CNES responsibility
b.1/ Belier, Centaure and Dragon
b.2/ Dauphin and Eridan
c/ Launches with CNES collaboration under foreign responsibility
d/ Launches on behalf of ESRO
e/ Launches on behalf of European countries

Links
Institut Français de l'Histoire de l'Espace - Fusées-sondes françaises


a/ Sud-Aviation rockets evolution

Sud Aviation
Scale in meters

TypeMass
(kg)*
Length
(m)*
Propellant Mass
(kg)
Thrust
(kN)
Burn time
(sec)
Payload
(kg)
Apogee
(km)
Belier I3135.920820213080
Belier III3525.9230.521.523.430130
Centaure I4907.0894 + 20842 + 206 + 2160130
Centaure III5477.0894 + 230.5 4.3 + 23.460170
Dragon I1 1908.16686 + 20890 + 2016 + 2160475
Dragon III1 2888.16686 + 230.590.0 + 21.516.5 + 23.460560
Dauphin1 1326.216869016.5130150
Eridan2 1279.92686 + 68690.0 + 90.016.5 + 16.5130425

Note : * Figures given in these columns correspond to average values, the fairing length of Belier, Centaure and Dragon rockets varies from 1 m to 2,30 m according to the payload.


b/ Launches under CNES responsibility

b.1/ Belier, Centaure and Dragon
DateSiteVehicleMissionResults
24 May 1961HMGBelier 05Technology, CNETS
25 May 1961HMGBelier 06Technology, CNETS
27 May 1961HMGCentaure 03Technology, CNETS
29 May 1961HMGCentaure 04Technology, CNETS
06 Dec 1961REGCentaure 02Aeronomy (Na release)S
06 Dec 1961HMGCentaure 06Aeronomy (Na + K release)F
09 Dec 1961REGCentaure 05Aeronomy (Na release)S
09 Dec 1961HMGCentaure 07Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
09 Dec 1961HMGCentaure 08Aeronomy (Na release)S
09 May 1962IDLBelier 02Technology, CNETF (remote control problem)
15 May 1962IDLBelier 03Technology, CNETS
16 May 1962IDLBelier 04Technology, CNETS
18 May 1962IDLCentaure 10TechnologyS
29 May 1962IDLCentaure 12Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
29 May 1962REGCentaure 15Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
29 May 1962HMGBelier 07Atmosphere radioactivityS
29 May 1962HMGCentaure 18Aeronomy (Na + K release, TNT)F
05 Jun 1962IDLCentaure 14Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
05 Jun 1962REGCentaure 16Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
05 Jun 1962REGCentaure 17Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
05 Jun 1962HMGCentaure 19Aeronomy (Na + K release, TNT)S
05 Jun 1962HMGCentaure 09Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
06 Jun 1962HMGBelier 08Atmosphere radioactivityS
20 Nov 1962IDLCentaure 36Aeronomy (Ba release)VF
21 Nov 1962IDLBelier 45Aeronomy (Li + Na release)SP (70 km)
22 Nov 1962IDLBelier 41Aeronomy (Li + Na release)SP (60 km)
26 Nov 1962HMGCentaure 20Ion density (Seddon)PS (120 km)
27 Nov 1962ARGCentaure 30Aeronomy (Na release)S (180 km)
28 Nov 1962HMGCentaure 32Ion density (Bowen)S (160 km)
30 Nov 1962HMGCentaure 11Ion density (Bowen)S (110 km)
30 Nov 1962HMGCentaure 26Aeronomy (Na release)PS
30 Nov 1962ARGCentaure 29Aeronomy (Na release)S (180 km)
30 Nov 1962IDLCentaure 37Aeronomy (Li + Na release)PS (60 km)
01 Dec 1962HMGCentaure 27Aeronomy (Na release)PS
04 Dec 1962HMGCentaure 21Ion density (Seddon)EF (60 km)
05 Dec 1962HMGDragon 03TechnologyF (80 km)
08 Dec 1962ARGCentaure 28Aeronomy (Na release)S (180 km)
09 Dec 1962ARGCentaure 31Aeronomy (Na release)S (180 km)
12 Dec 1962IDLCentaure 24Aeronomy (Na + K release, TNT)PS (Propulsion problem)
12 Dec 1962IDLCentaure 25Aeronomy (Na + K release, TNT)PS (Propulsion problem)
26 Apr 1963HMGDragon 04Technology? (58 km)
06 May 1963HMGBelier 01Atmosphere radioactivitySP (94 km)
14 May 1963HMGCentaure 51Aeronomy (TMA release)S (155 km)
15 May 1963HMGCentaure 42Aeronomy (Na + K + Ba release)S (160 km)
21 May 1963REGCentaure 45Aeronomy (Na release)S (170 km)
21 May 1963IDLCentaure 48Aeronomy (Na release)S (170 km)
21 May 1963HMGCentaure 43Aeronomy (Na + K release)S
24 May 1963HMGCentaure 41Aeronomy (Na + K release)VF (15 km)
25 May 1963ARGCentaure 35Aeronomy (Na release)S
30 May 1963ARGCentaure 39Aeronomy (Na release)S
12 Jun 1963HMGCentaure 54Bowen probe + Na releaseS (170 km)
13 Jun 1963HMGCentaure 55Bowen probe + Na releasePS (188 km)
14 Jun 1963HMGCentaure 53Aeronomy (Na release)S (185 km)
24 Jul 1963IDLBelier 73Aeronomy (Li release)S
30 Oct 1963HMGDragon 05TechnologyS (470 km)
09 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 13FU104A Aeronomy (Na release)S (180 km)
10 Feb 1964HMGDragon 07FU108 TechnologyS (470 km)
12 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 52FU106 Aeronomy (Na release)VF (23 km)
12 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 44FU107 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (190 km)
12 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 56FU107 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (190 km)
13 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 57FU107 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (170 km)
13 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 40FU106 Aeronomy (Na release)S (170 km)
14 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 38FU103A MPI (Ba release)PS (186 km)
15 Feb 1964HMGCentaure 34FU103A MPI (Ba release)PS (189 km)
11 Apr 1964HMGDragon 09FU104B Bourdeau probe + Na releasePS (400 km)
11 Apr 1964HMGCentaure 58FU105 Aeronomy (Na + TMA release)S (188 km)
13 Apr 1964HMGDragon 06FU104B Bourdeau probe + Na releasePS (425 km)
13 Apr 1964HMGCentaure 59FU105 Aeronomy (Na + TMA release)S (190 km)
04 May 1964HMGCentaure 60FU118 Langmuir probes + Na releaseEF (148 km)
08 May 1964HMGCentaure 33FU118 Langmuir probes + Na releaseS (151 km)
10 May 1964HMGCentaure 22FU101 Ion density (Seddon)VF (28 km)
10 May 1964HMGCentaure 46FU102 Aeronomy (Na release)S (178 km)
14 May 1964HMGCentaure 23FU101 Ion density (Seddon)EF (129 km)
01 Aug 1964#ISLDragon 10FU125 Ions particlesS (440 km)
07 Aug 1964#ISLDragon 11FU125 Ions particlesS (420 km)
05 Oct 1964HMGCentaure 62FU119 Langmuir + impedance probesPS (148 km)
07 Oct 1964HMGCentaure 63FU119 Langmuir + impedance probesS (118 km)
05 Nov 1964HMGCentaure 69FU132 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (175 km)
05 Nov 1964HMGCentaure 47FU132 Aeronomy (Na release)S (185 km)
05 Nov 1964IDLCentaure 64Aeronomy (Na release)S (150 km)
05 Nov 1964REGCentaure 72FU132 Aeronomy (Na release)S
05 Nov 1964REGCentaure 67FU132 Aeronomy (TMA release)S
06 Nov 1964REGCentaure 66FU132 Aeronomy (Na + TMA release)S
06 Nov 1964IDLCentaure 71Aeronomy (TMA release)S (103 km)
10 Nov 1964IDLBelier 69FU113 Aeronomy (ozone)SP (68 km)
27 Nov 1964HMGCentaure 75FU103B MPI (Ba release)S (191 km)
30 Nov 1964HMGCentaure 76FU103B MPI (Ba release)S (206 km)
03 Dec 1964HMGDragon 16FU103B MPI (Ba release)S (390 km)
04 Mar 1965HMGCentaure 85FU131A Technology (solar pointer)S (136 km)
22 Jun 1965HMGCentaure 106Aeronomy (Cs release)F
23 Jun 1965HMGCentaure 61Aeronomy (Ba release)S
23 Jun 1965IDLCentaure 65Aeronomy (Na release)S
23 Jun 1965HMGCentaure 50Aeronomy (TMA release)S
23 Jun 1965IDLCentaure 95Aeronomy (TMA release)F
24 Jun 1965IDLCentaure 84Aeronomy (TMA release)F
24 Jun 1965HMGCentaure 74Aeronomy (TMA release)F
24 Jun 1965REGCentaure 86Aeronomy (TMA release)F
24 Jun 1965IDLCentaure 83Aeronomy (Na release)F
24 Aug 1965#ISLDragon 17FU146 Ions particles + VLF noisePS (440 km)
03 Sep 1965#ISLDragon 18FU146 Ions particles + VLF noisePS (451 km)
18 Nov 1965CBECentaure 119FU143 MPI (Ba release)S (175 km)
19 Nov 1965CBECentaure 120FU143 MPI (Ba release)S (205 km)
20 Nov 1965CBEDragon 08FU143 MPI (Ba release)S (404 km)
16 Dec 1965HMGCentaure 128FU148 Ions particlesS (128 km)
16 Dec 1965HMGCentaure 131FU148 Ions particlesS (145 km)
16 Dec 1965HMGCentaure 94FU146 Aeronomy (Na release)EF (170 km)
20 Dec 1965HMGCentaure 130FU148 Ions particlesS (143 km)
17 Jan 1966HMGCentaure 127FU148 Ions particlesS (128 km)
21 Jan 1966HMGDragon 21FU133 Aeronomy (Na release)S (500 km)
03 Mar 1966HMGCentaure 77FU129 Lyman alphaEF, Fairing problem (125 km)
04 May 1966HMGDragon 12FU130 Lyman alphaVF
12 May 1966HMGDragon 13FU130 Lyman alphaS (464 km)
23 May 1966HMGDragon 14FU131 Atomic HydrogenEF, Pointer (460 km)
26 May 1966ANDDragon 20FU151 Ions particles + D&TPS
31 May 1966ANDDragon 23FU153 Ions particles + VLF noiseS
13 Jun 1966HMGCentaure 68Aeronomy (Na release/Turbulence)S (180 km)
14 Jun 1966HMGDragon 15FU131 Atomic HydrogenS (475 km)
15 Jun 1966HMGDragon 22FU131 Aeronomy (Na release)S (500 km)
16 Jun 1966ANDDragon 19FU151 Ions particles + D&TVF
18 Jun 1966HMGCentaure 70Aeronomy (Na release/Turbulence)S (183 km)
08 Oct 1966HMGCentaure 140FU109 Technology (separation)S (170 km)
17 Oct 1966ANDDragon 28FU165 Ions particles + Elect.FieldS (386 km)
14 Nov 1966HMGCentaure 105FU167 Aeronomy (Na release/Gemini 12)PS (170 km)
14 Nov 1966HMGCentaure 139FU167 Aeronomy (Na release/Gemini 12)PS (170 km)
26 Jan 1967#TADDragon 24FU145b Ions particles + D&TPS (340 km)
28 Jan 1967#TADDragon 25FU151 Ions particles + D&TS (310 km)
29 Jan 1967#TADDragon 26FU151 Ions particles + D&TS (320 km)
29 Jan 1967#TADDragon 27FU151 Ions particles + D&TS (340 km)
28 Mar 1967HMGCentaure 145FU177 Aeronomy (Na release/Turbulence)S (163 km)
14 Feb 1968BISDragon 32FU172 Solar HeliumEF, Fairing
15 Mar 1968#KERDragon 251FU171 VLF waves / Ions particlesS (>350 km)
18 Mar 1968CELBelier 301FU173 TechnologyF (destroyed)
27 Mar 1968#KERDragon 252FU171 VLF waves / Ions particlesS (>350 km)
01 Apr 1968#KERDragon 253FU171 VLF waves / Ions particlesS (>350 km)
14 May 1968SDQBelier 306FU193 TechnologyS (115 km)
23 Jul 1968BISDragon 301FU188 TechnologyPS (564 km)
03 Nov 1968ANDDragon 254FU182 Ions particles + Elect.FieldS (380 km)
06 Feb 1969BISDragon 258FU180 Mass Spectro (IG/URSS)S (430 km)
06 Feb 1969BISDragon 257FU180 Mass Spectro (IG/URSS)S (430 km)
06 Feb 1969BISDragon 256FU180 Mass Spectro (IG/URSS)S (405 km)
07 Feb 1969BISDragon 259FU180 Mass Spectro (IG/URSS)S (413 km)
06 Mar 1969KRUBelier 304FU173 TechnologyS (60 km)
17 Mar 1969KRUDragon 29FU172 Solar HeliumEF, Fairing (410 km)
13 Apr 1969ANDDragon 255FU182 Ions particles + Elect.FieldS (410 km)
17 Apr 1969ANDDragon 260FU190 Elect.Field + Ba release (MPI)S (329 km)
19 Apr 1969KRUBelier 116FU191 Tests CSGS (70 km)
26 Apr 1969KRUDragon 302FU188 TechnologyS (410 km)
27 May 1969BISDragon 303FU192 Ionosphere (quadrupole/plasma)VF, in flight destruction
10 Jul 1969IDLCentaure 81FU152 Aeronomy (Na release)S (109 km)
10 Jul 1969IDLCentaure 82FU152 Aeronomy (Na release)S (114 km)
18 Aug 1969KRUBelier 117FU191 Tests CSGS (67 km)
25 Sep 1969BISBelier 307ELECTRE (ONERA) 
18 Nov 1969BISDragon 304FU192 Ionosphere (quadrupole/plasma)S (475 km)
03 Feb 1970KRUBelier 139FU191 Tests CSGS (64 km)
06 May 1970(ARG)Dragon 37Electron densityS (425 km)
06 Oct 1970BISDragon 305FU195 EIDI 1, IonosphereS (490 km)
22 Oct 1970BISDragon 306FU195 EIDI 2, IonospherePS (480 km)
06 Nov 1970KRUBelier 140FU191 Tests CSGS (58 km)
26 Apr 1971ARNCentaure 136FU207 Aeronomy (Na release)S (129 km)
26 May 1971ARNCentaure 141FU207 Aeronomy (Na release)S (128 km)
27 May 1971ARNCentaure 137FU207 Aeronomy (Na release)S (129 km)
27 May 1971ARNCentaure 142FU207 Aeronomy (Na release)S (127 km)
19 Sep 1971KRUCentaure 133FU199 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (135 km)
20 Sep 1971KRUCentaure 132FU199 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (128 km)
20 Sep 1971KRUCentaure 146FU199 Aeronomy (TMA release)S (128 km)
18 Oct 1971KRUCentaure 154ISRO, Technology (recovery)PS (52 km)
12 Dec 1972(ARG)Dragon 38FU206 Protons & Electrons SpectroS (380 km)
17 Feb 1973BISDragon 308FU211 EIDI 3, IonosphereS (457 km)

b.2/ Dauphin and Eridan
DateSiteVehicleMissionResults
20 Mar 1967HMGDauphin 01FU163 TechnologyVF, Explosion at 5 sec
28 Jun 1967IDLDauphin 02FU179 TechnologyPS (138 km)
08 Mar 1968BISDauphin 03FU168 TechnologyS (123 km)
28 Mar 1968BISDauphin 04FU168 TechnologyS (98 km)
26 Sep 1968KRUEridan 02FU181 TechnologyVF
12 Apr 1969KRUEridan 05FU181 TechnologyS (406 km)
23 Apr 1969KRUEridan 03FU187 TechnologyS (420 km)
22 Aug 1969KRUEridan 04FU187 TechnologyS (244 km)
17 May 1971KRUEridan 06FU203 Technology (recovery SILAT)S (197 km)
14 Sep 1971KRUDauphin 05FU196 PHARE, Atomic HydrogenS (103 km)
16 Oct 1971KRUEridan 07FU202 UV Astronomy (ATLAS)EF, no stab. (205 km)
11 Nov 1972KRUEridan 08FU201 UV Astronomy (Mg II + He solaire)EF, no stab. (287 km)
07 Dec 1972KRUEridan 09FU205 UV Astronomy (JANUS)S (213 km)
05 Nov 1974KRUEridanFU214 UV Astronomy (FAUSTS (218 lm)
18 Nov 1974KRUEridanFU215 UV Astronomy (FAUST)S (219 km)
26 Jan 1975#KEREridanGeophysics (ARAKS)S
15 Feb 1975#KEREridanGeophysics (ARAKS)S
23 Nov 1978KRUEridan 15Tests CSG 
08 Feb 1979KRUDauphin 06Tests CSG 
13 Jun 1979KRUEridan 17Tests CSG 
14 Nov 1979KRUEridan 16Tests CSG 

c/ Launches with CNES collaboration under foreign responsibility

04 Nov 1964(ARG)Centaure 78Aeronomy (Na release)S
05 Nov 1964(ARG)Centaure 79Aeronomy (Na release)S
06 Nov 1964(ARG)Centaure 80Aeronomy (Na release)S
29 Apr 1965(IND)Centaure 99Aeronomy (Na release)PS (150 km)
02 May 1965(IND)Centaure 100Aeronomy (Na release)PS (140 km)
25 Nov 1965(ARG)Centaure 91Aeronomy (Na+TMA release)S
25 Nov 1965(ARG)Centaure 93Aeronomy (Na+TMA release)S
26 Nov 1965(ARG)Centaure 96Aeronomy (Na+TMA release)S
08 Jan 1966(IND)Centaure 103Aeronomy (Na release)PS (150 km)
24 Mar 1966(IND)Centaure 101Aeronomy (TMA release)S (163 km)
25 Mar 1966(IND)Centaure 102Aeronomy (TMA release)S (159 km)
19 Apr 1967(IND)Centaure 87Langmuir probeS (128 km)
03 May 1967(PAK)CentaureRehbar-15S (160 km)
05 May 1967(PAK)Dragon 33Shahpar-1PS
07 May 1967(PAK)CentaureRehbar-16S
06 Sep 1967(ARG)Centaure 143Aeronomy (Na release)PS
07 Sep 1967(ARG)Centaure 92Aeronomy (TMA release)PS
07 Sep 1967(ARG)Centaure 144Aeronomy (Na release)S
02 Feb 1968(IND)Centaure 90Aeronomy (TMA release)S (159 km)
22 Feb 1968(IND)Centaure 88Mass spectrometryS (140 km)
22 Feb 1968(IND)Centaure 89Mass spectrometryS (155 km)
23 Mar 1968(PAK)CentaureRehbar 17S (146 km)
29 Mar 1968(PAK)Dragon 34Shahpar-2S (420 km)
03 Apr 1968(PAK)CentaureRehbar 18S (146 km)
03 Nov 1968(IND)Centaure 104IonosphereS (159 km)
09 Feb 1969(PAK)CentaureRehbar 19F (55 km)
13 Feb 1969(PAK)CentaureRehbar 20F (12 km)
21 Sep 1969(IND)Dragon 39IonosphereF
06 May 1970(ARG)Dragon 37Electron densityS (425 km)
07 Apr 1972(PAK)CentaureRehbar-23S (150 km)
08 Apr 1972(PAK)CentaureRehbar-24S (150 km)
12 Dec 1972(ARG)Dragon 38Protons & electrons spectro (FU206)S (380 km)

d/ Launches on behalf of ESRO
DateSiteVehicleMissionResults
30 Oct 1964IDLCentaureC02 PhotometryEF (150 km)
07 Dec 1965SDQCentaureC07/1 Mass spectrometryEF (150 km)
11 Dec 1965SDQCentaureC07/2 Mass spectrometryPS (150 km)
14 Dec 1965SDQCentaureC06/1 Aeronomy/Solar X-raysSP (159 km)
05 Feb 1966ANDCentaure C16C15/1 Auroral studiesEF (97 km)
11 Feb 1966ANDCentaure C15C15/2 Auroral studiesVF
22 Feb 1966ANDCentaure C13C14/1 Auroral studiesPS (116 km)
24 Feb 1966ANDCentaure C14C14/2 Auroral studiesPS (65 km)
09 Mar 1966ANDCentaure C12C13/1 Auroral studiesPS (95 km)
10 Mar 1966ANDCentaure C11C13/2 Auroral studiesPS (115 km)
15 May 1966#KARCentaure C05C06/2 Aeronomy/solar X-raysPS (143 km)
20 May 1966#KARCentaure C19C22/1 Solar astronomy (eclipse)PS (118 km)
20 May 1966#KARCentaure C20C22/2 Solar astronomy (eclipse)PS (123 km)
20 Jul 1966SDQBelier (147)B12/1 Neutron densityS (65 km)
25 Jul 1966SDQBelier (148)B12/2 Neutron densitySF (67 km)
19 Nov 1966KIRCentaureC21/1 Auroral studiesSF (125 km)
29 Nov 1966KIRCentaure C08C09/1 IonosphereS (147 km)
30 Nov 1966KIRCentaure C07C09/2 IonosphereS (149 km)
04 Feb 1967KIRCentaureC21/1 Auroral studiesS (129 km)
16 Feb 1967KIRCentaureC10/1 Auroral studiesPS (148 km)
22 Feb 1967KIRCentaureC10/2 Auroral studiesSF (155 km)
19 Apr 1967KIRCentaure IIBC24 Technology, parachutePS (129 km)
31 Jul 1967KIRCentaure IIBC20/1 NLCS (133 km)
31 Jul 1967KIRCentaure IIBC32/1 Micrometeorites, no recoveryPS (127 km)
04 Oct 1967ANDDragon (35)D34/1 Solar X-rays, mass spectrometryPS (250 km)
07 Oct 1967ANDDragon (30)D30/1 Solar X-rays, mass spectrometryPS (238 km)
10 Oct 1967ANDDragon (36)D34/2 Solar X-rays, mass spectrometryVF
24 Nov 1967KIRCentaure IIBC13P Auroral studiesSF (165 km)
26 Nov 1967KIRCentaureC31/1 Auroral studiesS (126 km)
06 Dec 1967KIRCentaureC31/2 Auroral studiesS (128 km)
01 Feb 1968KIRCentaure C34C36/1 TMA release, grenadesS (150 km)
04 Feb 1968KIRCentaure C35C36/2 TMA release, grenadesS (145 km)
06 Mar 1968KIRCentaure IIBC14P Auroral studiesPS (155 km)
08 May 1968SDQCentaure (152)C33/1 Auroral studies, Winter anomalySF (54 km)
15 May 1968SDQCentaure (153)C33/1 Auroral studies, Winter anomalyEF (80 km)
20 May 1968KIRCentaureC42/1 MicrometeoritesS (136 km)
22 May 1968SDQDragon (31)D30/2 Solar X-rays, mass spectrometryVF (225 km)
07 Jun 1968KIRCentaure IIBC42/2 MicrometeoritesS (138 km)
08 Jun 1968KIRCentaure IIBC32/2 MicrometeoritesPS (135 km)
30 Jul 1968KIRCentaure IIBC20/2 NLCPS (137 km)
08 Oct 1968KIRCentaure IIBC35/1 X-rays astronomySF (140 km)
15 Oct 1968KIRCentaure IIBC45/1 TMA release, grenadesPS (160 km)
01 Nov 1968KIRCentaure IIBC45/2 TMA release, grenadesPS (167 km)
25 Feb 1969ANDCentaure IIBC49/1 PCAS (135 km)
26 Feb 1969ANDCentaure IIBC49/2 PCAS (120 km)
15 Mar 1969KIRCentaure IIBC52/1 Auroral studies, recoveryS (138 km)
14 Apr 1969KIRCentaure IIBC39/1 PCAVF
15 Apr 1969KIRCentaure IIBC39/2 PCAPS (134 km)
05 Jun 1969KIRCentaure IIBC35/2 X-rays astronomyS (130 km)
11 Aug 1969KIRCentaure IIBC51/1 NLC, photometryS (145 km)
14 Aug 1969KIRCentaure IIBC58/1 MicrometeoritesS (111 km)
10 Oct 1969KIRCentaure IIBC52/2 Etudes auroresS (138 km)
27 Nov 1969KIRCentaure IIBC62/1 Etudes auroresS (160 km)
27 Nov 1969KIRCentaure IIBC62/2 Etudes auroresS (162 km)
04 Feb 1970KIRCentaureC57/1 GrenadesS
23 Feb 1970KIRCentaureC37/1 Ba release 
03 Apr 1970KIRCentaureC57/2 GrenadesS
07 Jun 1970KIRCentaureC48/1 Lyman alphaS
09 Aug 1970KIRCentaureC58/2 MicrometeoritesS (114 km)
10 Aug 1970KIRCentaureC51/2 NLC photometry, Electric fieldsS (153 km)
19 Aug 1970KIRCentaureC48/2 Lyman alphaS (114 km)
17 Jan 1971KIRCentaureC37/2 Ba releaseS (215 km)
25 Jan 1971KIRCentaureC60/1 Polar cap particlesS (170 km)
26 Jan 1971KIRCentaureC60/2 Polar cap particlesS (173 km)
27 Jan 1971KIRCentaureC78/1 Auroral particlesS (142 km)
31 Jul 1971KIRCentaureC59/1 NLC 
01 Aug 1971KIRCentaureC59/2 NLC 
22 Nov 1971KIRCentaureC78/2 Auroral particlesS (140 km)
21 Jan 1972KIRCentaureC76/1 Cosmic rays 
22 Jan 1972KIRCentaureC76/2 Cosmic rays 

e/ Launches on behalf European countries
DateSiteVehicleMissionResults
20 Feb 1974KIRCentaure IIC(Swe) C111/1 Electric fields(155 km)
20 Feb 1974KIRCentaure IIC(Swe) C111/2 Electric fields(152 km)
12 Sep 1974KRUCentaure IIC(Bel) C99/1-FU225 Nitrogen oxide releaseS (140 km)
12 Sep 1974KRUCentaure IIC(Bel) C99/2-FU225 Nitrogen oxide releaseS (140 km)
13 Sep 1974KRUCentaure IIC(Bel) C99/3-FU225 Nitrogen oxide releaseS (143 km)
07 Mar 1975KIRCentaure IIC(Swe) C100-S13 Photometry(108 km)
12 Dec 1977ARNCentaure I(Spa) Ionosphere 
16 Dec 1977ARNCentaure I(Spa) Ionosphere 

Notes: BIS: Biscarosse; CBE: Colomb Bechar; IDL: Levant island; KRU: Kourou; HMG: Hammaguir; REG: Reggane
AND: Andoya; ARN: El Arenosillo; KIR: Kiruna; SDQ: Salto di Quirra
(ARG): Argentina; (IND): India; (PAK): Pakistan
#ISL: Iceland; #KAR: Karistos; #KER = Kerguelen; #TAD = Adelie Land


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Please contact Jean-Jacques Serra <JJ.Serra@wanadoo.fr> for comments, corrections or questions